by Ralph Metzner: Discovering Psychedelic Inventions and the Time Limitations However Completely Modified Consciousnesses They Include … waking up, sleeping and dreaming that those less widespread and induced by means comparable to psychoactive medicine, hypnosis, shamanic drumming, certain varieties of respiration practices and others. We recognize some reworked states as usually constructive, wholesome, expanded, and associated with elevated information and ethical worth: this consists of spiritual or mystical experience, ecstasy (illuminated "ex-stasis"), transcendence, hypnotherapeutic trans, artistic inspiration, tantric erotic, , cosmic consciousness, samadhi, nirvana, satori. And there are others which might be usually thought-about unfavorable, unhealthy, contraceptive, and related to delusions, psychopathology, destruction, and even crime, similar to melancholy, rage, psychosis, insanity, hysteria, mania, dissociative issues, substance abuse (alcohol, medicine, stimulants). behavioral addictions and attachments (sexuality, violence, gambling, spending). The idea of "changed states" might be thought-about as one of the paradigms of consciousness analysis.
A research of psychedelic medicine that I co-authored with my colleagues Tim
in Leary and Richard Alpert at Harvard University within the early 1960s led to
growing consciousness of the importance of intention in understanding
states of consciousness. Leary formulated the "place and place" speculation in response to a publication
whose content material of psychedelic experience is extra a perform of intention (set) and context (setting) than is a question of psychopharmacology, i.e. "drug effect". The drug is considered to be a set off or a catalyst that drives the individual to another area or state of consciousness by which the vividness of sensory perceptions and contextual features are enormously emphasized. Other catalysts could possibly be sure meals, fasting, hypnotic inductions, sound, shamanic drumming, respiration (pranayama), transitance, wilderness isolation and so on.
This speculation helps to know how it is potential that the very same
drug, e.g., LSD, was investigated and interpreted as model psychosis (psychotomimetic c), psychoanalysis (psycholytic) supplementation, remedy of habit or stimulation of creativity (psychedelic), imaginative and prescient facilitator (entheogenic); and even, like the United States Army and the CIA, a truth-serum-like device for getting secrets from enemy spies. Of all the 2 parts of set and set, the set or function is clearly the first one, as it often determines what setting is chosen for the experience.
I’ve moved on states of consciousness expanded your class and collection of
set the hypothesis for all modifications in consciousness, regardless of what triggers these incurred; and even states that recur cyclically and commonly, corresponding to sleeping and waking (Metzner, 2005). Through the cycle of consciousness modifications within the wake cycle, inner biochemical occasions usually set off the transition to sleep or wake. but exterior elements might provide an additional catalyst. For instance, mendacity in mattress at midnight triggers modifications in the degree of melatonin within the pineal gland, which in flip triggers falling asleep; and brighter mild is generally triggered by an awakening, which in turn is mediated by cyclic biochemical modifications. As well as, there may be exterior elements similar to stimulating or sedative medicine or alarm clocks that trigger these modifications.
It is clear that the content of our dream may be analyzed as a perform of the set, the intrinsic elements of consciousness in the course of the day, as well as the setting during which we are. In reality, a lot of the psychological interpretation of goals is predicated on the idea that goals characterize symbolic processing of yesterday's experiences, that is, of objective. In sleep incubation, a sort of prophecy, this principle is deliberately used and consciously formulated with sure questions about their inner process or external state of affairs as they move into the dream world. In hypnotherapy, as with all varieties of psychotherapy, we all the time begin with the shopper's intention or question, directing the motion into a trance or by means of a therapeutic session. In shamanic follow, whether rhythmic drumming as a catalyst or entheogenic plant innovations, such as the one advisable by the practitioner of Ayahuasca, there all the time comes first a question or objective. Even the experience of a traditional awakening, such because the reader's familiarity with this essay, is determined by the interior elements of intention or curiosity and the state of affairs through which reading happens.
Some scholars, especially Stanislav Grof, are cartographers of their altered states, whether psychedelic or holotropic respiration, categorized totally different states by content reminiscent of perinatal reminiscences, animal or plant identifications, experiences which might be beyond odd time and area. Others, including myself, have taken a slightly totally different strategy, specializing in the power of the modified areas, apart from the content. It’s attainable to arrange totally different states of consciousness on the wake or wake scale, as a result of high pressure in sleep or coma; in addition to a separate,
unbiased scale of pleasing, heavenly states vs. painful, hellish states (Metzner, 2005). The third, purely formal or energetic, dimension of altered states, regardless of content material, is enlargement versus contraction. Psychedelic medicine have been initially referred to as "consonant-expanding": no hallucinatory, illusory objects are seen in such areas; fairly, it sees bizarre objects, nevertheless it also sees, feels, and knows associated patterns and points that have been previously unknown. In such states, along with perception, there’s notion – the reflective consciousness of the experiencing subject and the understanding of the related context parts. One other approach of saying that is by including objective observer or witness consciousness to subjective expertise. This expanded awareness or contextual understanding is usually absent in psychoactive stimulants and depressants, which merely shift consciousness either up or down in the accelerating dimension and remove pain or discomfort. Also referred to as observer witnesses is a state of drug habit, sometimes described as "undisturbed," "cloudy," or "sleep."
Return for a second to different modifications in consciousness as drug-related, we will see that the awakening is awareness of the experience of the enlarged: I’m conscious of the truth that I am the one who is lying in bed, on this room, which has just this specific dream, and I know different different world outdoors, all household and work relationships, group and area. Crossing means "going further"; subsequently, transcendental experiences, which in many ways are referred to in religious traditions as enlightenment, awakening, ecstasy, liberation, mystical, cosmic, revelation, all embrace an enlargement of consciousness the place the earlier area of consciousness isn’t ignored or prevented (we are saying "It was only a dream") context that gives insights.
I’ve argued essay on "Addiction and Transcendence as Change Alfaction of consciousness" (Metzner, 1994), that, although the psychedelic and different varieties of transsendenttisten expertise might be thought-about a prototype you of consciousness enlargement, the proto sort of the decreased states of consciousness may be discovered dependencies, obsessions, refugees, and attachments, that are hinted at when psychedelic medicine like LSD and Ibogaine are used to treat alcoholism, drug abuse, and other obsessive neurosis. psilocybin, a psychoactive principle isolated from the sacred fungus of Mexico, has now been re-tested for the remedy of OCD (obsessive-compulsive dysfunction).
Rituals Associated to Drug Abuse
I propose the next definition of ritual. A: Ritual is a deliberate, acutely aware association of time, area, and exercise in accordance with certain intentions. In different words, going back to psychedelic research, lets say that rituals are a acutely aware association of consciousness and regulation. Subsequently, we had totally different celebrities that have been used (psychotomimetic, hallucinogenic, psycholytic, psychedelic, entheogenic) in response to the prevailing considering sample of the people who organized the experience. The drug used for LSD was the same, indicating that totally different experiences usually are not as a consequence of totally different drug results.
The consumption of our most popular psychoactive medicine, melancholy alcohol and stimulant caffeine, can also be surrounded by detailed rituals, as we nicely know: cocktail parties, school beer events, or the morning brewing of an "awakening" coffee cup. Heroin habit researchers have found that a typical addict is as dependent on the detailed rituals of getting ready for injection as he can on the drug itself. People who smoke and other people watching people who smoke' films are properly aware that small rituals of taking a cigarette out of the pack, lighting a cigarette for themselves or for others – all seem to be important parts of an expertise that soothes nervousness, overcomes withdrawal pain, and strengthens habit. You’ll be able to all the time ask – what is the function of having fun with a ritual? The purpose of smoking a cigarette seems to be to appease the stress response and to reward yourself.
Rituals of On a regular basis Life
We’re all acquainted with the standard little rituals that mediate the transitions of our every day existence. In the mornings we have now rituals of toileting and cleansing, shaving, dressing and perhaps exercising. At night time we’ve got bedtime rituals of putting on nightwear, tales, prayers, good night time kisses. Mother and father of younger youngsters understand how essential it’s for the kid to have the very same order of ritual parts so that the kid can go to sleep.
The rituals associated with a family eating collectively are maybe the oldest. and probably the most honorable in human life, goes back to Paleolithic occasions, when hominid hunters brought meat from searching to share with household and tribe. We’re also accustomed to family meal rituals, and household students have identified how essential household time for supper could be in strengthening family ties. Or how essential they can be in the improvement of neurotic issues, especially consuming issues, whereby consuming and sharing meals is overwhelmed with all types of emotional factors,
and eating meals will substitute the shortage of emotional vitamin. 19659004] Difficulties come up not a lot within the biochemistry of food and drinks
however in household meal rituals which might be hidden in hidden neurotic or
energy packages. Similarly, mating, sexuality, love, friendship, and marriage are related to all the
quite a few complicated ritual behaviors, some of which are outlined by
traditions and even spiritual teachings, others by glamorized pictures and
Students of Indian Tantra custom and Taoist Chinese sexuality have reintroduced these historic teachings to trendy life – the follow of typical sexual ritual conduct and self-indulgence – somewhat than in Western Christianity-controlled societies. Mircea Eliade referred to Tantra in "Yoga" as "ritualized physiology".
Institutionalized Rituals in the Academy, Faith, and Army
Ritualized conduct in educational institutions like this university is in all places. Sometimes, collective ritual actions have a clearly outlined position that totally different individuals can play. For example, there’s a ritual generally known as a "university lecture" during which one group of individuals, referred to as "students," sits in a kind of receptive state, listening to a person referred to as "professor" explaining the chosen matter. The two roles, the speaker and the audience, use totally different however reciprocal intentions that unite them at the similar time
Human conduct in the church, synagogue, or temple is strongly ritualized, so much
. so for many people the phrase "ritual" is synonymous with "religious ritual". Spiritual rituals, which have typically been said, can turn out to be seemingly meaningless, solely the mechanical repetition of certain phrases, phrases and gestures. What has happened right here? Then the original spirit or function underlying the spiritual ritual – which undoubtedly had something to do with communion with divinity – is not alive to the leaders of the rituals, who’re subsequently unable to convey that spirit to others.
The ritual or ceremonial type seems to have been emptied of the spirit – and other people will then feel bored or inhuman, not moved or uplifted. Some individuals seem to consider that each one sorts of rituals are a very good factor and we’d like them extra in trendy life. As might be seen from the example of a spiritual ritual, the ethical and social worth of a ritual is a perform of the intention behind it.
Different areas of social life supply much more dramatic examples of ethical
neutrality. the ritual. There are devastating and aggressive rituals – all the time the ritualized aggression of sports activities reminiscent of boxing or football; Fetishist rituals of sado-masochism and slavery / domination in the sexual area; element in choreographed crimes in crime investigation, police, judiciary and litigation; and army dehumanizing instructional rituals. Younger soldiers are taught in symbolic ritual movements methods to immunize themselves from unusual individuals
from impulses of decency and friendliness to grow to be cruel fight units or robots. As is understood, the Nazis have been masters of the ritual, using the facility of uniformed males with torches, songs, marches and propaganda speeches to collect and harness enthusiastic dedication to human power for their own functions or for events. intra-group economic and energy packages. Healing and Therapeutic Rituals in Western Drugs and Indigenous Shamanism
The ritualistic elements of drugs and psychotherapy are recognized and obvious. Medical follow isn’t just about mechanical administration or surgery. The presentation of care, whether or not respectful or dreadful to the patient, the qualities of empathetic help, and the human kindness of the affected person, are recognized as important parts of all care. Good medical schooling faculties emphasize the importance of therapeutic "bedding" for the success of therapeutic outcomes. Partly inspired by Oriental medical traditions, reminiscent of Chinese, Indian, and Tibetan drugs, the holistic medical motion takes under consideration all points of way of life, together with eating regimen, train, emotional state, family dynamics, and even astrological elements. These are all points of the organization of time and area, the integrity and setting of the doctor-patient interplay.
The importance of contextual ritual has also been appreciated within the subject of psychotherapy
. Psychoanalysis was typically referred to as "speaking healing," but actually the psychoanalytic therapeutic ritual contained far more than talking within the writings of Sigmund Freud and his followers. A psychoanalyst is sitting on a affected person lying on a sofa; the latter is advised to regard the analyst as a "blank screen" to whom he can communicate his "reward association" reward, that’s, analysts who might intrude with appearance. One of Freud's most sensible and progressive students, Wilhelm Reich, broke this tradition and invented his personal very totally different therapeutic ritual: to satisfy the patient
and comply with his body's respiration actions, he was capable of connect them with psychic content material by studying the Muscle Pressure. Extra usually, the significance of a therapist's heat, snug, protected, aesthetically pleasing placement and empathetic method is extensively appreciated. These are all ritual parts which might be believed to be and have been selected to advertise constructive therapeutic outcomes. If one compares how Western drugs and psychotherapy have included psychedelic substances into therapeutic practices, shamanic healing ceremonies with entheogenic natural substances, an understanding of the importance of the ritual is inevitable.
The normal type of a shamanic ceremony representing hallucinogenic crops is a rigorously structured expertise where a small group (6-12) of individuals encounter a respectful, religious angle of profound therapeutic and change, facilitated by these powerful catalysts. "Journey" is a beneficial metaphor in shamanistic societies for what we name a "changed state of consciousness".
There are three vital variations between shamanic entheogenic ceremonies and typical psychedelic psychotherapy. One is that traditional shamanic rituals contain little or no speak among the members, besides perhaps through the preparatory part or later to clarify the teachings and visions they have discovered to make clear the expertise. The second is that singing or singing a shaman is all the time thought-about important to the success of a healing or divisive course of. As well as, in ethnogenic rituals, typical singing tends to have a
pretty speedy beat, just like the rhythmic pulse of shamanic drumming journeys (prevalent in northern hemisphere shamanistic societies in Asia, Europe, and America). Mentally, rhythmic singing, like a drum pulse, appears to help motion via the movement of visions and minimizes the probability of getting caught in a battle or seductive expertise. The third function of traditional ceremonies is that they are virtually all the time executed in the dead of night or at dusk – which facilitates the creation of visions. The exception is the peyote ceremony, which is performed around a fireplace (although additionally at night time); Right here, members can see visions as they stare on the hearth.
I’ll briefly mention some variations of conventional rituals involving
hallucinogens. Through the peyote ceremonies of the North American Indigenous Church, members sit in a circle, on a tip, on the ground, around a burning central hearth. The ceremony continues throughout the night time and is led by a "roadman" with the assistance of a drummer, firefighters and a cameraman (for cleansing). Employees and rattles flow into and members sing peyote songs with a fast, rhythmic beat. Peyote ceremonies for Huichol Indians in northern Mexico also happen around a fireplace, with tons of singing and storytelling, after an extended pilgrimage to find the uncommon
Ceremonies of the San Pedro cactus, within the Andes, typically
additionally performed round a fireplace, singing; however typically the curandero locations an
altar on which numerous symbolic figures and objects representing
mild and dark spirits are more likely to meet.
Mazatec Fungal Ceremonies (Velada). Mexican Indian attendees
sit or lie in a really dark room with solely a small candle.
The healer, who may be a lady or a man, sings virtually uninterruptedly,
all through the night time. , by weaving in his songs the names of the Christian saints,
his spirit ally and the spirits, parts, animals and crops, heaven, waters, and hearth of the earth.
Conventional Amazonian Indian or Mestizo ceremonies with ayahuasca
also contain a small group sitting in a circle, in the dead of night, while Newbie
sing songs (Icaros) via which therapeutic and / or analysis happen
. These songs also have a reasonably fast rhythmic pulse that keeps the
expertise circulate shifting. Sometimes, shamanic "absorbing" methods
are used to separate toxic mental remains or witch implants.
The attending ceremonies at the Afican iboga manufacturing unit used by the Bwiti cult
Gabon amd Zaïre embrace an altar with ancestors and deities and other people
sitting on the floor singing and dancing so much. Ofen, the convention room has a
mirror the place initiators can "see" the spirit of their ancestors
. By evaluating Western psychoactive-assisted psychotherapy with shamanic entheogenic healing rituals, we will see that the position of an skilled guide or therapist is equally necessary in each, and the which means of set (function) and setting is implicitly acknowledged and articulated into ritual varieties. The aim behind both practices is therapeutic and drawback fixing. Therapeutic outcomes can comply with each approaches, although the underlying paradigms of disease and remedy are utterly totally different.
The two parts of shamanic traditions that present quick and radical challenges to the accepted Western worldview are the existence of many worlds and beings – such conceptions are absolutely accepted in both the trigger and science, regardless that they are taken as a right by the normal Shamanistic ).
It’s value noting that in the case of ayahuasca, there have been three separate
syncretic spiritual actions or church buildings in Brazil, which embrace the
ayahuasca as a central sacrament in their spiritual ceremonies. Here, the aim of the ritual is just not so much a healing or therapeutic view because it reinforces moral values and communality.
types listed here are rather more reminiscent of church worship rituals than they
resemble both a psychotherapist's workplace or a shamanic therapeutic session
. It’s value mentioning that within the case of ayahuasca, there have been three separate syncretic spiritual movements or church buildings in Brazil, which embrace the inclusion of ayahuasca of their spiritual ceremonies because the central sacrament. Right here, the purpose of the ritual shouldn’t be a lot healing or therapeutic imaginative and prescient, however quite it reinforces ethical values and communality. The ceremonial types listed here are far more reminiscent of a church worship ritual than a psychotherapist's workplace or a shamanic healing session (Metzner, 1999).
In these hybrid therapeutic-shaman circle rituals, sure primary parts prolong
. traditional shamanic therapeutic ceremonies are usually, though not all the time,
• a circle construction through which individuals both sit or lie down;
• altar in the middle of the circle or hearth within the middle if outdoors;
• presence of an experienced aged or information, typically with a number of
• ideally in low mild or semi-dark circumstances; typically eye tones are used
• use of music: drumming, decorating, singing or fascinating recorded music;
• Proudly owning a ritual area by inviting the spirit in four directions
• Cultivating a respectful, religious angle.
Experienced entheogenic researchers perceive the importance of the set and subsequently pay shut consideration to clarifying their intentions with regard to therapeutic and prediction
. Additionally they perceive
setting and the significance of proudly owning, subsequently, considerable concern a peaceful place to
and the time for the organization, full of pure magnificence and cost fom disturbances or
Most of the members within the circles. this type, which I have discovered, are experienced in a number of psykospirituaalisessa follow, including the shaman drum journey, Buddhist Vipassana meditation, and tantrajooga holotrooppinen of respiration, and most are experienced and / or engaged in psychotherapy and body-oriented therapy in a spread of shapes. The insights and research of these practices are woven into the members' work with entheogenic medicine. Individuals will seek to verify that entheogenic natural medicines, together with meditative or therapeutic insight processes, increase consciousness and sensitize their perception, particularly by growing somatic, emotional, and instinctive consciousness.
There are sometimes some variations on the talking or singing employees. utilized in ceremonies: this follow, which seems to be born of the Northwest Pacific Indians, and is now extra commonly referred to as the "Council", is just a individual with a rotating employees who sings or speaks and doesn’t talk about, question or interpret (as in typical group psychotherapy ). Nevertheless, in some group periods, there’s minimal or no interaction between individuals during an expanded state of consciousness.
In preparation for a circle ritual, members usually share their intentions and functions, as well as training meditation or typically being alone in nature or inventive expressions comparable to drawing, painting, or journaling. The circle ritual, typically after morning, often has some type of integration follow by which members can share some of the teachings discovered and apply to their lives.
Rituals of Divination, Transition, and Starting  There are two important varieties of conventional and neo-traditional practices and ceremonies which are either explicitly or typically explicitly recognized – i.e., therapeutic or drawback solving, which often includes dealing with the previous; and on the lookout for steerage or visions that embrace trying to the longer term. One might say that the overall objective is prediction – prediction in relation to therapeutic known as analysis or discovering the cause of the problem. Western drugs and psychotherapy are additionally waiting for the previous to know the causes of illness or psychological distress: we ask, and how did the wound, embryo, microbe, virus, infection or relationship grow to be harder? Shamanistic healers, for instance in South America, are more likely to personal the origin of both physical and psychological issues, witchcraft, in about 50% of instances – so the query is who and how this hexing occurred? An accurate trigger analysis is acknowledged as essential for figuring out applicable and effective remedy. (There are exceptions to this follow: Probably the most putting instance is Homeopathy, which
solely seems on the signs which are at present occurring.) in drugs.
Nevertheless, researchers, business individuals, and politicians within the trendy world use considerable power and assets to determine future developments and chances. Phrases like forecasting, state of affairs constructing, pc modeling, development forecasting – all show a deep interest in probable future opportunities. Phrases reminiscent of anticipation and anticipation are perhaps probably the most commonly used phrases to explain the longer term. The psychotherapy career has closed itself off by exploring the longer term of their shoppers, principally with the underlying belief that the longer term is unpredictable. Mutta tämä perustuu ennakoinnin sekoittumiseen ennustamiseen: tulevaisuuden opastamiseen pyrkivät tulevaisuuden ohjausta harjoittavat ihmiset ovat todennäköisiä, eivät määrätietoisia, kuten menneisyyttä.
Yksi tapa, jolla äskettäin syntyvä valmennusammatti erottaa itsensä,
perinteinen psykoterapia siten, että se auttaa enemmän
asiakkaita selkeästi ilmaisemaan tulevaisuuden aikomuksensa ja auttamaan heitä
Länsilaisten teollisuusmaiden ja vielä enemmän kolmannen maailman maiden tavallisten ihmisten keskuudessa ymmärretään että ennustaminen ei ole kuin ennuste, ja samalla ymmärretään, että nykyhetkellä tehdyt valinnat vaikuttavat suuresti tulevaisuuden luomiseen. Useimmille ihmisille termi "ennustaminen" liittyy sellaisiin järjestelmiin kuin astrologia, I Ching, Tarot, riimut, kivet, luut jne. Näitä voidaan pitää ennustamisen lisävarusteina tai työkaluina. Jos tarkastelemme yleistä
tekijää kaikissa näissä menetelmissä, on kysymyksen esittäminen (tai aikomuksen esittäminen), joka ohjaa sitten divinerin tai psyykin huomion ja käsityksen. Aivan kuten asiakkaan kysymys tai tarkoitus määrää psykoterapeutien tai lääkäreiden interventioiden kulun. Useiden viime vuosien aikana kehittämiäni käytänteitä kutsun ”alkemialliseksi ennustamiseen”, koska niiden painopiste on psyko-henkisissä muutoksissa, kuten alkemiallisessa kielessä ja symbolismissa symboloidaan. Niitä voidaan yhtä hyvin soveltaa paranemista koskeviin aiempiin kysymyksiin ja kysymyksiin, samoin kuin tulevaisuuden kysymyksiin, jotka liittyvät elämän vision tai oppaan etsimiseen (Metzner,
2005). These practices are rituals, in their formalized structure of question-and-answer processes, whether accomplished with individuals or in teams. The steps of the ritual, one may say, is only inner, like a sort of meditation; but the format is just like what one would anticipate to see with a Tarot card reader, or crystal ball gazer, or astrologer, the place another, presumably impartial individual, who presumably is just not as overanxious about some outcomes and, and subsequently “seeing” with extra readability and less bias.
There are specific differences in shamanic and alchemical divination practices oriented towards the longer term, fom the sorts of strategy to forecasting utilized by futurists in academia or the enterprise world. Whereas the latter use purely rational, psychological processes and statistics to anticipate future tendencies, shamanic (and by extension alchemical, since alchemy is an outgrown of shamanism) strategies often contain some sort of altered state technique, to convey the questioner and/or the diviner into an expanded or heightened state of consciousness, additionally referred to as “non-ordinary consciousness”, the place they will glimpse into the world beyond the here-and-now actuality of the peculiar senses.
The in search of of steerage or a vision for one’s life was a vital core component of the passages of adolescence in conventional societies, particularly amongst native North American Indians. The Plains Indians, such as the Sioux, would have their younger boys spend a number of days on a “vision quest” in the mountains or wilderness, fasting and praying for a imaginative and prescient for his or her life. There can be in depth preparation beforehand and integration aferward by a tribal or familial elder. In recent times the apply of imaginative and prescient question or fasting alone within the wilderness in search of a vision has been delivered to many individuals at numerous transition points of their life, not only adolescence – transitions reminiscent of divorce, job modifications, major deaths or losses in the family and so forth. One seeks to connect with inside sources of religious steerage, and ofen therapeutic as nicely.
Rites of passage with a religious focus have for a very long time been absent in the trendy world. They’ve been preserved solely in very attenuated and simplistic types such because the rites of affirmation and bar mitzvah in spiritual communities, which for many adolescents don’t carry much religious which means anymore. Or they could be discovered, also in enormously desacralized type, in school faternities, and highschool graduation ceremonies. Or they could be discovered, for males especially, within the brutal violence of army boot-camp training, or of street-level gang initiations. Subsequently, the re-introduction of such transition rites or rites of passage, just like the vision quest. into trendy society represents a
reconnection to the archaic life-wisdom practices of the ancient world and of indigenous societies and as such presages the likelihood of drastically deepened group and social cohesiveness and well being.
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